The Parker Project is applying grid-balancing
services to a fleet of electric vehicles to
demonstrate their potential to support the
electricity grid as power resources

The Parker project was concluded
in January 2019 - you can find the
end report in the download section.

About Parker

The aim of the Parker project is to validate that series-produced electric vehicles as part of an operational vehicle fleet can support the power grid by becoming a vertically integrated resource, providing seamless support to the power grid both locally and system-wide. Furthermore, we seek to ensure that barriers regarding market, technology and users are dealt with to pave the way for further commercialization and not least to provide an evaluation of specific electric vehicles’ capability to meet the needs of the grid.


Ultimately, Parker will contribute to ensuring the role of electric vehicles as contributors to securing an economic and reliable power system based on a high share of renewable energy.

With an ambition to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy such as wind and sun, the future power system will experience growing challenges in securing the necessary grid capacity and balancing the electricity grid. Furthermore, ambitious international and European strategies to reduce CO2 emission necessitates the electrification of the transportation sector. This electrification means that the power system needs to prepare to deal with a new demand for power and energy.


The electric vehicle can potentially play a key role in meeting such challenges and contributing to balancing the future power system. By using the properties of the electric vehicle as a power resource, electric vehicles can actively support the grid. Parker seeks to pave the way for this unique capability of the electric vehicle and thereby ensure the role of the electric vehicle as a contributor to securing an economic and reliable power system, based on a high share of renewable energy.

Parker builds on two previous projects, the EDISON and Nikola projects, which have already laid the foundation for understanding the electric vehicle’s potential in balancing the Danish power system. Parker represents the next technology readiness level by allowing balancing services to be applied to a fleet of electric vehicles.


Research and development in the project is carried out as a multidisciplinary collaboration between commercial OEMs, technology providers, fleet owner and customers as well as academic institutions.


Furthermore, Parker will interface with, and be supported by the world’s first commercial pilot of series produced V2G cars providing system services, the Frederiksberg Pilot. Such collaborations will contribute to the likelihood of market adoption and ensure that the results will be applicable and re-usable to the power system in Denmark and elsewhere.

Partners: The project partners are Nissan, Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, PSA ID,
NUVVE, Frederiksberg Forsyning A/S, Insero A/S, Enel and DTU Electrical Engineering (PowerLabDK).


Duration: The project period is August, 2016 to July, 2018.


Funding: The project has an overall budget of DKK 11,639,521 which is financed by ForskEL.


Technology: The technology used by the project has been thoroughly tested and validated. This includes the vehicles (Nissan), charging infrastructure (ENDESA) and aggregation software (NUVVE). The use of such mature components reduces the technology-related risks in the project.

The three pillars of Parker

Grid applications

The project will study the practical applications of power and energy services on contemporary electric vehicles in order to identify technical, economic and regulatory barriers for these applications and to finally identify viable business cases.

Grid Readiness Certificate

Parker will specify the technical parameters (grid keys) needed by electric vehicles to provide power and energy services to the grid. Furthermore, the project will produce a Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIV) certificate that demonstrates the ability of electric vehicles to support such parameters.

Replicability and Scalability

The project will promote replicability of the investigated applications across geographies, technologies and user groups. Also, Parker will investigate the economic and technical impacts of the applications on the power system and markets.

Latest News


Read more about the roles of the partners

DTU Elektro has developed special expertise within electric vehicle grid integration research and technologies. Read more at www.elektro.dtu.dk


PowerLabDK provides state-of-the-art laboratory facilities for EV integration research and development. Read more at www.powerlab.dk


NUVVE’s Grid Integrated Vehicle platform focuses on ensuring EVs are supporting the electric grid with V2G services for customers, DSOs and TSOs, and by monetizing these on energy markets. Read more at www.nuvve.com


Nissan has developed special expertise within the manufacturing of electric vehicles and applications of V2G. Read more at www.nissan-global.com


Insero A/S  has developed special expertise within the evaluation of business potential and needed frameworks to support EV solutions. Read more at www.insero.com


Frederiksberg Forsyning will host chargers and vehicles in the project and engage in the project as user and fleet owner. Read more at www.frb-forsyning.dk


Enel has developed special expertise within smart grid solutions, market integration and V2G infrastructure development. Read more at www.enel.com


Groupe PSA has developed special expertise within electric vehicle manufacturing and V2G technology applications. Read more at www.groupe-psa.com


Mitsubishi Corporation has developed special expertise within electric vehicle manufacturing and V2G technology applications. Read more at www.mitsubishi-motors.com


Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has developed special expertise within electric vehicle manufacturing and V2G technology applications. Read more at www.mitsubishi-motors.com



Fact Sheet

Press Release 

Final Report


  • K. Knezović, M. Marinelli, A. Zecchino, P.B. Andersen, C. Traeholt, “Supporting involvement of electric vehicles in distribution grids: Lowering the barriers for a proactive integration,” Energy, vol. 134, pp. 458-468, Sep. 2017. Read it here
  • M. Rezkalla, A. Zecchino, S. Martinenas, A.M. Prostejovsky, and M. Marinelli, “Comparison between Synthetic Inertia and Fast Frequency Containment Control on Single Phase EVs in a Microgrid,” Applied Energy, vol., pp. 1-12, Jun 2017 – in press. Read it here
  • M. Marinelli, S. Martinenas, K. Knezović, and P. B. Andersen, “Validating a centralized approach to primary frequency control with series-produced electric vehicles,” J. of Energy Storage, vol. 7, pp.63-73, Aug. 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2016.05.008. Read it here
  • S. Martinenas, K. Knezović, and M. Marinelli, “Management of Power Quality Issues in Low Voltage Networks using Electric Vehicles: Experimental Validation,” Power delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 32, no.9, pp. 971-979, Apr. 2017. Read it here
  • K. Knezović, S. Martinenas, P.B. Andersen, A. Zecchino, and M. Marinelli, “Enhancing the role of EVs in the grid: field validation of multiple ancillary services provision,” Transportation Electrification, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 201-209, Mar. 2017. Read it here
  • B. Christensen, M. Trahand, P. B. Andersen, O.J. Olesen, and A. Thingvad, “Integration of new technology in the ancillary service markets,” Public Project Report, Mar. 2018. Read it here
  • A. Zecchino, A. Thingvad, P.B. Andersen, and M. Marinelli, “Suitability of Commercial V2G CHAdeMO Chargers for Grid Services,” Proceedings of EVS 31 & EVTeC 2018. Read it here
  • S. Hashemi, P.B. Andersen, and C. Traeholt, “V2G enabled EVs providing frequency containment reserves: field results,” Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, IEEE 2018, pp. 1814-19. Read it here
  • Soares, T., Sousa, T., Andersen, P. B., & Pinson, P. (2018). Optimal Offering Strategy of an EV Aggregator in the Frequency-Controlled Normal Operation Reserve Market. In Proceedings of 2018 15th International Conference on the European Energy Market (pp.1-6). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/EEM.2018.8469922
  • Hashemi, S., Arias, N. B., Bach Andersen, P., Christensen, B., & Traholt, C. (2018). Frequency Regulation Provision Using Cross-Brand Bidirectional V2G-Enabled Electric Vehicles. In Proceedings of 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, SEGE 2018 (pp. 249-254). [8499485] IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/SEGE.2018.8499485
  • Andersen, P. B., Hashemi, S., Sousa, T., Sørensen, T.M., Noel, L., & Christensen, B. (2018). Cross-brand validation of grid services using V2G-enabled vehicles in the Parker project. In Proceedings of 31st International Electric Vehicles Symposium & Exhibition & International Electric Vehicle Technology Conference 2018 IEEE.
  • Andersen, P. B., Sousa, T., Thingvad, A., Berthou, L. S., & Kulahci, M. (2018). Added Value of Individual Flexibility Profiles of Electric Vehicle Users For Ancillary Services. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids IEEE.
  • Sousa, T., Hashemi, S., Andersen, P. B. (2019). Raising the potential of a local market for the reactive power provision by electric vehicles in distribution grids. In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution.
  • Arias, N. B., Hashemi, S., Andersen, P. B., Træholt, C., Romero, R. (2019). Distribution System Services Provided by Electric Vehicles: Recent Status, Challanges, and Future Prospects. in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, pages: 1-20.



About the project


Peter Bach Andersen

Project Manager

Mail: pba@elektro.dtu.dk

Phone: +45 3119 9949



Ronnie Ranch

Senior Communications Advisor

Mail: rohe@insero.com

Phone: +45 4177 0146

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